Test Bank For Community Psychology Linking Individuals and Communities 3rd Edition

$45.00

Instant Downloadable

Description

Test Bank For Community Psychology Linking Individuals and Communities 3rd Edition

 

Chapter 1: What is Community Psychology?

 

 

 

 

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

  1. Two different views of homelessness described in the chapter are the idea that individual factors determine who becomes homeless, and the idea that the extent of homelessness is determined by:
    the supply of affordable housing and demand for it.
    b. psychological characteristics of homeless persons.
    c. individual choices.
    d. personal problems.

    [a., pp. 5-6]

 

  1. What is the point of the “homelessness as musical chairs” analogy in Chapter 1?
    personal factors determine how many persons become homeless
    b. supply and demand for housing determines how many become homeless
    c. both ‘a’ and ‘b’
    d. most homeless persons have mental illnesses

    [b., p. 7]

 

  1. In the case study of “Elaine” in Chapter 1, which ideas below reflect an ecological perspective?
    understanding how gender role expectations have influenced Elaine’s family life
    b. helping Elaine obtain financial resources
    c. encouraging Elaine to seek wider sources of support
    d. all of the above

    [d., pp. 8-9]

 

  1. In the case study of “Elaine” in Chapter 1, which ideas below reflect an ecological perspective?
    the impact of global economic forces on Elaine’s community resources
    b. the support available at a nearby church
    c. the impact of gender roles on Elaine’s family life
    d. all of the above

    [d., pp. 8-9]

 

  1. Ignoring or discounting the impact of environments and situations on individual actions.
    context minimization error
    b. context maximization error
    c. fundamental cognitive error
    d. personalization error

    [a., p. 10]

 

  1. Jeff assumes that everyone has the same chances in life, and that what they make of them is solely due to their personal choices. This viewpoint reflects the
    context minimization error
    b. context maximization error
    c. fundamental cognitive error
    d. personalization error

    [a., p. 10]

 

  1. Garth comes from a town whose schools are well-funded and excellent, and he has little trouble getting into exclusive colleges. Gary comes from a town with little money for its schools, which affects the courses he could take, and limits which colleges he could get into.  Ignoring this difference in Garth’s and Gary’s situations would be committing what error?
    context maximization error
    b. context minimization error
    c. fundamental cognitive error
    d. personalization error

    [b., p. 10]

 

  1. In community psychology, contexts include which of the following?
    neighborhoods, workplaces
    b. cultural and economic forces
    c. personality traits or characteristics
    d. both ‘a’ and ‘b’

    [d., p. 10]

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most likely to be made by a community psychologist?
    Actions are determined by one’s personality.
    b. Persons and contexts influence each other.
    c. Contexts determine how we act.
    d. Microsystems determine how we act.

    [b., p. 11]

 

  1. In a business workplace, the impact of global competition and conflicts between work and family life are ____ factors.
    cultural
    b. contextual
    c. personal
    d. first-order

    [b., p. 10-11]

 

  1. There has been a recent rise in vandalism in a neighborhood. Neighbors organize a crime watch group, and the vandalism becomes less frequent.  This is an example of what principle in Chapter 1?
    context minimization error
    b. the importance of empirical grounding
    c. macrosystem-level change
    d. persons and contexts influence each other

    [d., p. 11]

 

  1. What does Rappaport’s Rule state?
    Persons and contexts influence each other.
    b. Environments determine behavior.
    c. Homelessness is like a game of musical chairs.
    d. When everyone agrees with you, worry.

    [d., p. 12]

 

  1. At a school board meeting, everyone seems to agree with a new rule proposed by the high school principal and the superintendent. Dolly wonders if this new rule will have some problems or limitations that are not being discussed.  Dolly is applying what concept from Chapter 1?
    first-order change
    b. context minimization
    c. Rappaport’s Rule
    d. individual and family wellness

    [c., p. 12]

 

  1. Changing the elements in a system, such as the individuals who become homeless or the employees in a school system, involves what type of change?
    first-order change
    b. second-order change
    c. third-order change
    d. macrosystem change

    [a., pp. 14-15]

 

  1. Changing the relationships among elements in a system, such as the relationships between workers and supervisors, involves what type of change?
    first-order change
    b. second-order change
    c. third-order change
    d. all of the above

    [b., pp. 14-15]

 

  1. In the case of Eric described in Chapter 1, what did Rhona Weinstein do that comprised second-order change?
    insisted on more testing for Eric’s learning disability
    b. developed behavioral management plans to reduce Eric’s clowning behavior
    c. had Eric assigned to a more interesting reading group
    d. all of the above

    [c., pp. 15-16]

 

  1. What do Oxford Houses do that comprises second-order change for persons in recovery from substance abuse?
    residences are democratically managed by professional
    staff
    b. residents supervise each other’s behavior to promote
    recovery
    c. residents must be involved in professional treatment
    d. residents must be involved in mutual help groups

    [b., p. 17]

 

  1. Community psychology primarily concerns the relationships of ____ .
    individuals with microsystems
    b. individuals with macrosystems
    c. individuals with communities and societies
    d. communities with second-order change

    [c., p. 12]

 

  1. The role of community psychologist has often been described as ____ .
    participant conceptualizer
    b. community activist
    c. participant observer
    d. practicing citizen

    [a., p.13]

 

  1. A quotation in Chapter 1 asserted, “If you want to understand something, ____ . “
    study it in the laboratory
    b. measure its causes
    c. try to change it
    d. get everyone to agree about it

    [c., p. 13]

 

  1. In a well-known quotation in Chapter 1, Kurt Lewin asserted, “There is nothing so ____ as a good theory.”
    scientific
    b. measurable
    c. valid
    d. useful

    [d., p. 13]

 

  1. In Figure 1.1, depicting ecological levels of analysis in community psychology, ____ systems are those closest to the individual, such as microsystems.
    proximal
    b. distal
    c. personal
    d. psychological

    [a., pp. 18-19]

 

  1. In Figure 1.1, depicting ecological levels of analysis in community psychology, ____ systems are those that have indirect yet broad effects on individual life.
    proximal
    b. distal
    c. microsystem
    d. personal

    [b., p. 19]

 

  1. In Figure 1.1, depicting ecological levels of analysis in community psychology, cultural beliefs, economic forces, and the mass media are ____ .
    macrosystems and proximal systems
    b. macrosystems and distal systems
    c. microsystems and proximal systems
    d. localities and distal systems

    [b., pp. 19-23]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In Figure 1.1, depicting ecological levels of analysis in community psychology, self-help groups, choirs, and friends are ____ .
    macrosystems and proximal systems
    b. macrosystems and distal systems
    c. microsystems and proximal systems
    d. microsystems and distal systems

    [c., pp. 19-23]

 

  1. Community psychology programs that attempt to strengthen personal capabilities for going through life transitions such as divorce or becoming a parent are focused at which level of analysis below?
    locality
    b. microsystem
    c. organization
    d. individual

    [d., p. 23]

 

  1. A self-help group, a small student club, and a network of friends are examples of which level of analysis?
    macrosystems
    b. microsystems
    c .organizations
    d. localities

    [b., p. 23]

 

  1. Schools, workplaces, and religious congregations are examples of which level of analysis?
    microsystems
    b. macrosystems
    c. organizations
    d. localities

    [c., p. 21]

 

  1. The level of analysis that includes national mass media, international corporations, and cultural forces.
    microsystem
    b. macrosystem
    c. organization
    d. locality

    [b., p. 22]

 

  1. The concept of a setting in community psychology may refer to which of the things below?
    a microsystem
    b. an organization
    c. a locality
    d. either ‘a’ or ‘b’

    [d., p. 20]

 

  1. A college seeks to lessen student drug abuse by providing programs for athletic teams, fraternities and sororities and residence hall groups. In addition to individuals, this approach focuses on which level of analysis below?
    microsystems
    b. localities
    c. macrosystems
    d. citizen participation

    [a., pp. 24-25]

 

  1. A program to prevent transmission of HIV focuses on changing norms among peers in microsystems. Which tactic below best matches this approach?
    posters with information on how HIV is transmitted
    b. visiting bars and talking with small groups of patrons
    c. counseling individuals who seek HIV testing
    d. making videos for large-group programs

    [b., pp. 24-25]

 

  1. To deal with the problem of unemployment, a program helps workers develop new employment skills, and provides peer social support groups for unemployed persons. These approaches focus on which levels of analysis?
    individuals and microsystems
    b. microsystems and localities
    c. microsystems and macrosystems
    d. individuals and macrosystems

    [a., pp. 19-20]

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which approach below most closely blends macrosystem change with a concern for individual wellness?
    encouraging students in schools to eat healthy foods
    b. advertisements advising “responsible drinking”
    c. holding a bicycle race to promote fitness
    d. banning smoking in public places

    [d., p. 22]

 

  1. Which core value of community psychology concerns personal health, well-being and quality of life?
    empirical grounding
    b. sense of community
    c. individual and family wellness
    d. collaboration and community strengths

    [c., pp. 26-27]

 

  1. Community programs that promote personal competencies for coping with stressors most directly address what core value of community psychology?
    sense of community
    b. citizen participation
    c. individual and family wellness
    d. prevention

    [c., pp. 26-27]

 

  1. Which core value of community psychology concerns interdependence and relationships among persons, and a feeling of belongingness?
    social justice
    b. individual and family wellness
    c. collaboration and community strengths
    d. sense of community

    [d., pp. 27-28]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Working to strengthen connections among persons through neighborhood associations and religious or spiritual communities most directly concerns which core value of community psychology?
    individual and family wellness
    b. respect for human diversity
    c. empirical grounding
    d. sense of community

    [d., pp. 27-28]

 

  1. Which core value of community psychology most directly concerns the fair allocation of resources, opportunities and power in society?
    social justice
    b. collaboration and community strengths
    c. individual and family wellness
    d. empirical grounding

    [a., pp. 29-30]

 

  1. Studying the historical struggles of women, African Americans and other racial groups, workers, immigrants, and other groups for equality of opportunity and power in U.S. society most directly involves which core value of community psychology?
    social justice
    b. collaboration and community strengths
    c. individual and family wellness
    d. empirical grounding

    [a., pp. 28-29]

 

  1. Which core value of community psychology most directly concerns the involvement of individuals who are members of a community or group in the decisions made by that community or group?
    individual and family wellness
    b. social justice
    c. empowerment and citizen participation
    d. respect for human diversity

    [c., pp. 30-31]

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The idea of procedural justice is most similar to the community psychology core values of
    social justice and sense of community
    b. social justice and empowerment/citizen participation
    c. social justice and empirical grounding
    d. respect for human diversity and empirical grounding

    [b., pp. 29-31]

 

  1. A locality receives a grant for efforts to strengthen families and parenting. A community psychologist leads a discussion of citizens about programs they wish to fund with the money.  These decisions are to be made by citizens, not just by professionals.  What core value of community psychology below is most directly involved in how these decisions are made?
    individual and family wellness
    b. respect for human diversity
    c. empowerment and citizen participation
    d. empirical grounding

    [c., pp. 30-31]

 

  1. Which core value of community psychology below most directly concerns relationships between community psychologists and the communities with whom they work, especially a respect for the expertise of community members?
    collaboration and community strengths
    b. social justice
    c. individual and family wellness
    d. empirical grounding

    [a., pp. 31-32]

 

  1. The community psychology core value of collaboration and community strengths primarily involves which idea below?
    means, or how community psychologists work
    b. ends, or how community psychologists work
    c. ends, or the ultimate goals of community work
    d. means, or ultimate goals of community work

    [a., pp. 31-32]

 

  1. Which two core values of community psychology are most similar in their emphasis on the ability of community members to make their own decisions while working with community psychologists?
    individual and family wellness, and empirical grounding
    b. citizen participation and empirical grounding
    c. social justice and sense of community
    d. empowerment/citizen participation and collaboration/community
    strengths

    [d., pp. 30-32]

 

  1. The core value of community psychology that concerns working with community members as full partners in making cooperative decisions, not as underlings or research subjects.
    collaboration and community strengths
    b. sense of community
    c. empirical grounding
    d. individual and family wellness

    [a., pp. 31-32]

 

  1. The core value of community psychology most concerned with recognizing and appreciating differences among persons based on race, gender, culture, sexual orientation, or other identities or life experiences.
    social justice
    b. sense of community
    c. empowerment and citizen participation
    d. respect for human diversity

    [d., pp. 28-29]

 

  1. When community psychologists adapt their research questions and methods to be appropriate to the culture they study, what core value of community psychology is most directly involved?
    respect for human diversity
    b. individual and family wellness
    c. social justice
    d. sense of community

    [a., pp. 28-29]

 

  1. The idea that community programs should be based on research findings is most directly related to which community psychology core value?
    individual and family wellness
    b. empirical grounding
    c. respect for human diversity
    d. empowerment and citizen participation

    [b. pp. 32-33]

 

  1. The idea that community research and community action can strengthen each other is most directly related to which community psychology core value?
    empirical grounding
    b. individual and family wellness
    c. sense of community
    d. social justice

    [a., pp. 32-33]

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Explain how community psychology involves a shift in perspective from focusing on individuals to considering individuals within contexts.  Describe one example of this shift from the chapter, and one from your own ideas or experience.

 

  1. Describe a problem your society or locality faces, and suggest possible causes of that problem at each of the five ecological levels of analysis discussed in the chapter.

 

  1. List and define the seven core values of community psychology.  Give examples of how a university or a locality could put each value into action.

 

  1. Discuss the similarities and differences among the core values of social justice, empowerment/citizen participation, and collaboration and community strengths.  Give examples to support your points.

 

  1. Discuss how the core values of individual and family wellness and sense of community may conflict, and how they may support each other.  Give specific examples to support your points.

 

  1. Discuss how the core values of social justice and sense of community may conflict, and how they may support each other.  Give specific examples to support your points.

 

  1. Discuss the community psychology core values that might come into conflict in the following example.

 

A public school district is awarded a grant to implement programs to reduce or prevent substance abuse among its students.  The district soon discovers that many programs exist for this purpose.  Some lack research on their effectiveness, yet are popular among citizens in the district.  The effectiveness of other programs is documented in research, and district staff prefer these.  How does the district decide which program to implement?

 

  1. Discuss the community psychology core values that might come into conflict in the following example.

 

A community psychologist is asked by a locality to work with neighborhood associations to strengthen citizen involvement in community affairs.  The locality has a reputation as a nice place to live.  As the community psychologist begins this work, it becomes plain that at least some associations wish to find ways to prevent migration into their neighborhoods by persons who differ in race, income, and culture from the majority population there.

 

  1. Describe how an awareness of ecological levels of analysis would lead to improved mental health services for persons like “Elaine”, who was profiled in Chapter 1.