Network+ Guide to Networks 7th Edition Solution
Sample Chapter Below:
Introduction to Networking
At a Glance
Instructor’s Manual Table of Contents
- Teaching Tips
- Quick Quizzes
- Class Discussion Topics
- Additional Projects
- Additional Resources
- Key Terms
Loosely defined, a network is a group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media. Variations on the elements of a network and its design, however, are nearly infinite. A network can be as small as two computers connected by a cable in a home office or the largest network all, the Internet, made up of millions of computers connected across the world via a combination of cable, phone lines, and wireless links. Networks might link cell phones, personal computers, mainframe computers, printers, plotters, fax machines, and corporate phone systems. They might communicate through copper wires, fiber-optic cable, or radio waves. This chapter introduces students to the fundamentals of networks and how technicians support them.
After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, the student will be able to:
- Identify types of applications and protocols used on a network
- Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer models used to control access to a network
- Describe various networking hardware devices and the most common physical topologies
- Describe the seven layers of the OSI model
- Explore best practices for safety when working with networks and computers
- Describe the seven-step troubleshooting model for solving a networking problem
How Networks Are Used
- Define network services.
- Explain that a client-server application involves two computers:
- client computer
- Use Figure 1-1 to demonstrate how a client and server communicate across a network.
- Define and discuss protocols.
|Teaching Tip||Be sure to emphasize that it is possible for a computer to act as both a client and a server and explain how this might occur.|
- Discuss several popular client-server applications used on networks and the Internet:
- Web service
- email services
- FTP service
- Telnet service
- Remote Desktop
- remote applications
File and Print Services
- Define file services.
- Define a file server.
- Discuss why file services are the foundation of networking today.
- Define print services and describe the advantages the service provides.
- Define convergence.
- Define unified communications (UC).
- Discuss the three types of communication services a network might support:
- conversational voice
- streaming live audio and video
- streaming stored audio and video
- Define and describe quality of service (QoS).
Controlling Network Access
- Define and describe the term topology. Discuss the two types of topology students will need to understand:
- physical topology
- logical topology
- Explain that controlling how users and programs get access to the resources on a network is a function of the OS used on the network.
- Introduce students to the peer-to-peer and the client-server network models.
- Discuss the characteristics of a peer-to-peer (P2P) network model.
- Describe the characteristics of a traditional peer-to-peer network.
- Use Figure 1-4 to illustrate resource sharing on a peer-to-peer network.
- Discuss the significance of having a Windows local account if all computers in a P2P network are running a Windows OS.
- Describe the advantages of peer-to-peer networks.
- Describe the disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks.
|Teaching Tip||Be sure to emphasize that modifying file-sharing controls is operating system dependent and that this method of resource sharing may lead to access controls that are not uniform or secure.|
Client-Server Network Model
- Introduce the client/server model. Use Figure 1-5 in your discussion.
- Define and describe a Windows domain. Point out that centralized database that contains user account information and security for the entire group of computers is called Active Directory (AD).
- Discuss the use of a global account in a Windows domain. Compare this type of account to a local account that students learned about earlier in the chapter.
|Teaching Tip||Students can learn more about Microsoft Active Directory by visiting: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd578336%28v=ws.10%29.aspx|
- Describe how clients and servers communicate.
- Provide examples of current Network Operating Systems and discuss some of the tasks that a NOS is responsible for.
- Describe the disadvantage of a client/server network relative to a peer-to-peer network.
- Describe the advantages of a client/server network relative to a peer-to-peer network.
Networking Hardware and Physical Topologies
- Introduce this section by using Figure 1-6 to discuss networking hardware and how that hardware is connected together.
LANs and Their Hardware
- Define and describe a LAN.
- Define and describe a switch.
- Introduce the star topology.
- Use Figure 1-6 to illustrate a typical star topology network.
- Use Figure 1-8 to discuss the concept of a network port.
- Define and describe NICs (network interface cards). Use Figure 1-9 in your discussion.
- Introduce the concept of a network backbone.
- Note the cabling needs for a network backbone and discuss why they are important.
- Introduce the bus topology.
- Define and describe the star-bus topology.
- Use Figure 1-10 to illustrate a star-bus topology.
- Define and describe a router.
- Use Figure 1-12 to discuss the difference between a switch and a router.
MANs and WANs
- Define and describe a MAN. Point out that a MAN may also be called a CAN.
- Define and describe a WAN.
- Use Figure 1-14 to illustrate a WAN connecting two LANs in different geographical areas.
- Define and describe a PAN.
|Teaching Tip||Be sure to mention that the Internet the largest and most varied WAN in the world.|
Quick Quiz 1
- Which of the following protocols is used by a client to send an email message?
- Which of the following allows two or more people to have voice conversations over a network?
- True or False: A client/server network is the simplest network model.
- A _____ is a central conduit that connects the segments (pieces) of a network.
- A network that is larger than a LAN and connects clients and servers from multiple buildings is known as a(n) ____.
Answer: MAN (metropolitan area network)
The Seven-Layer OSI Model
- Use Figure 1-15 to compare network communications and the US Postal Service.
- Define and describe the OSI model.
- Introduce the seven layers of the OSI model. Use Figure 1-16 in your discussion.
- Explain how the services at each layer use protocols.
- Emphasize that the OSI model is a theoretical representation of what happens between two nodes communicating on a network.
|Teaching Tip||Students may find more information on the OSI Model’s seven layers at http://support.microsoft.com/kb/103884|
Layer 7: Application Layer
- Introduce and describe the Application layer.
- Explain how the Application Layer facilitates communication between software applications and lower-layer network services.
- Point out that data passed between applications or utility programs and the OS is called a payload.
Layer 6: Presentation Layer
- Introduce and describe the function of the protocols in the Presentation layer.
- Explain how the Presentation layer services also manage data encryption (such as the scrambling of passwords) and decryption.
Layer 5: Session Layer
- Introduce and describe the functionof the Session layer.
- Define the term session.
- Point out that most tasks are performed by the OS when an application makes an API call to the OS.
Layer 4: Transport Layer
- Introduce and describe the function of the protocols in the Transport layer.
- Define and describe TCP and the characteristics of a connection-oriented protocol.
- Define and describe UDP and the characteristics of a connectionless protocol.
- Define encapsulation as the process of adding of a header to the data inherited from the layer above.
- Discuss the Transport layer’s use of ports numbers.
- Point out that TCP messages are known as segments and UDP messages are known as a datagram.
Layer 3: Network Layer
- Introduce and describe the function of the Network layer.
- Note that the IP protocol is the most common Network layer protocol.
- Explain how the data unit accepted from the Transport layer is transformed into a packet.
- Define and discuss an IP address.
- Point out that IP relies on several routing protocols to find the best route for a packet when traversing several networks on its way to its destination.
- Define and discuss fragmentation.
Layer 2: Data Link Layer
- Introduce and describe the function of the Data Link layer.
- Point out that switches operate at this layer.
- Define a frame and explain its purpose.
- Describe the communication mishap referred to as partial communication.
- Describe a MAC address as a Layer 2 address that is found on every network adapter on the globe.
Layer 1: Physical Layer
- Introduce and describe the function of the Physical layer.
- Explain the different signal types corresponding to the different transmission media.
Protocol Data Unit or PDU
- Describe a PDU (protocol data units) and explain how it flows through the model.
- Use Table 1-1 to discuss the different names for a PDU as it moves from one layer to another.
Summary of How the Layers Work Together
- Use Figure 1-17 and Table 1-2 to describe the steps through the OSI layers during a browser-to-Web server transmission.
Staying Safe When Working with Networks and Computers
- Discuss the importance of knowing the best escape route in the event of an emergency.
- Describe the components of a fire suppression system.
- Discuss the difference between a fail open and a fail close.
- Explain that a material safety data sheet (MSDS) explains how to properly handle substances such as chemical solvents and how to dispose of them.
- Explain that the HVAC system controls the environment in a data center.
- Discuss the important role that they HVAC system plays in maintaining a suitable environment for networking components.
Protecting Against Static Electricity
- Define and describe grounding.
- Discuss the negative effects that static electricity (ESD) can have on electronic components.
- Describe the steps that should be followed before touching a component.
- Describe the guidelines that should be followed when lifting heavy objects.
- Use Figure 1-21 to describe a patch panel.
- Introduce students to the use of racks for housing network connectivity devices.
- Discuss the general directions for safely installing rack-mountable devices.
Electrical and Tool Safety in Data Centers
- Explain that electrical and tool safety in workplaces is generally regulated by OSHA.
- Discuss the general OSHA guidelines that should be followed when using power tools or other hand tools in the workplace.
Troubleshooting Network Problems
- Introduce basic troubleshooting methodology.
- Use Figure 1-24 to describe each of the seven steps of the troubleshooting methodology.
- Demonstrate using the seven steps to troubleshoot a failed network connection (see “Applying Concepts: Troubleshoot a Failed Network Connection”).
Quick Quiz 2
- The seventh layer of the OSI model is the ____ layer.
- The Application layer separates data into ____, or discrete amounts of data.
Answer: PDUs (protocol data units)
- Protocols in the ____layer accept data from the Session layer and manage end-to-end delivery of data.
- True or False: The IP (Internet Protocol) operates in the Transport layer.
- Switches operate at which layer of the OSI model?
- Physical layer
- Transport layer
- Session layer
- Data Link layer
Class Discussion Topics
- Discuss the differences and similarities between a peer-to peer network and a client server network.
- As a class, discuss the difference between a physical topology and a logical topology. Why are both necessary?
- The student has learned that the OSI model allows TCP to function at the Transportation layer and IP to function at the Network layer. Have the students’ research TCP/IP protocols functions in more depth in relation to the OSI model. The students should then prepare a report summarizing their research. Included in the report should be a critique of the question, “Does the OSI models conform to the TCP/IP protocols, or vice versa? Require students to defend their thoughts.
- Understanding Client-Server Applications
- Client-Server vs. Peer Networks
- The Seven Layers of the OSI Model
- How Stuff Works – Networking Library
For definitions of key terms, see the Glossary near the end of the book.
- Active Directory (AD)
- Active Directory Domain Services(AD DS)
- API (application programming interface)call
- Application layer
- ARP (Address ResolutionProtocol)
- best-effort protocol
- bus topology
- call tracking system
- CAN (campus area network)
- catastrophic failure
- client-server applications
- client-server network model
- connectionless protocol
- connection-oriented protocol
- Data Link layer
- Data Link layer address
- demarcation point
- electrostatic discharge (ESD)
- emergency alert system
- fail close
- fail open
- file server
- file services
- fire suppression system
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
- global account
- hardware address
- heating, ventilation, and air conditioning(HVAC) system
- HTTP (Hypertext TransferProtocol)
- HTTPS (HTTP Secure)
- hybrid topology
- ICMP (Internet Control Message
- IMAP4 (Internet Message AccessProtocol, version 4)
- IP (Internet Protocol)
- IP address
- knowledge base
- Layer 2 switch
- Link layer
- Link layer switch
- local account
- local area network (LAN)
- logical topology
- MAC (Media Access Control)address
- MAN (metropolitan areanetwork)
- material safety data sheet (MSDS)
- multicast distribution
- network adapter
- network interface card (NIC)
- Network layer
- network operating system (NOS)
- network services
- onboard network port
- OSHA (Occupational Safety andHealth Administration)
- OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)reference model
- PAN (personal area network)
- patch panel
- peer-to-peer (P2P) network
- personal protective equipment(PPE)
- physical address
- Physical layer
- physical topology
- point-to-multipoint model
- point-to-point model
- POP3 (Post Office Protocol,version 3)
- port number
- Presentation layer
- print services
- protocol data unit (PDU)
- quality of service (QoS)
- RDP (Remote DesktopProtocol)
- remote application
- Remote Desktop
- Remote Desktop Services
- ring topology
- RTP (Real-time TransportProtocol)
- Secure Shell (SSH)
- Session layer
- SFTP (Secure File TransferProtocol)
- SMTP (Simple Mail TransferProtocol)
- SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
- star topology
- star-bus topology
- static electricity
- TCP (Transmission ControlProtocol)
- Terminal Services
- TLS (Transport Layer Security)
- Transport layer
- trip hazard
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
- unified communications (UC)
- upset failure
- video teleconference (VTC)
- VoIP (Voice over IP)
- WAN (wide area network)