An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations 2nd Edition Test Bank

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An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations 2nd Edition Test Bank

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An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations 2nd Edition Test Bank

 

Sample Chapters:

 

Chapter 1—Work Before Industrialization

Test Questions

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The first humans gained their livelihood through
    1. Gathering and hunting
    2. Agriculture
    3. Industry
    4. Skill specialization

 

  1. An ethos of sharing is often found in gathering-and-hunting societies because:
  1. It provides a kind of insurance policy for the members of these societies
  2. People in these societies are not as greedy as people in “modern” societies
  3. Their religious views put strict limits on the acquisition of material goods
  4. None of the above

 

 

  1. There has been a tendency to downgrade the importance of gathering in societies based on gathering and hunting because ­­­____________.
  2. Hunting is a larger contributor to survival.
  3. It is typically a woman’s job.
  4. Farming is the largest contributor to survival.
  5. A and B

 

  1. According to the perspective of the !Kung San:
  2. A life of unremitting toil is an inescapable consequence of living in a difficult environment
  3. Work cannot be easily distinguished from other aspects of daily life
  4. Work is something that only men do
  5. Work is something that only women do

 

  1. The transition from gathering and hunting to sedentary agriculture, made possible a significant increase in ­­­____________.
  2. The quality of life
  3. Male dominance
  4. The welfare of women
  5. Population

 

  1. Even though agriculture radically changed the size and density of populations, it retained:
  2. The types of equipment that were needed for production
  3. Gender-based division of labor
  4. The “slash and burn” method of cultivation
  5. Low levels of warfare

 

  1. The most common source of power used in agricultural labor was:
  2. Wind
  3. Water
  4. Human and animal muscles
  5. All of the above

 

 

  1. The individuals who most benefited from the putting-out system were:
  2. Farmers
  3. Merchants
  4. Peasants
  5. Artisans

 

  1. A great deal of the economic surplus from agricultural production was absorbed by:
  2. Merchants, who loaned money to the workers
  3. Artisans when they acquired their tools
  4. The ruling elite and their consumption patterns
  5. None of the above

 

  1. The early establishment of capitalism and rapid economic growth was most evident in:
  2. Italy
  3. The Netherlands
  4. Spain
  5. Austria

 

True/False Questions

 

  1. Among the !Kung San, infanticide has been the primary means of keeping the size of the population stable
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The rise of agricultural societies was often accompanied by the invention of writing.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. One proposed cause for the Agricultural Revolution is the combination of population growth and environmental change.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. Horticultural societies are usually heavily dependent on the labor of women.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The invention and spread of agriculture allowed people to enjoy more leisure time
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. Even in the ancient world, some of the key characteristics of modern bureaucracies were evident.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. Agrarian states relied on record keeping in order to regulate the size of its population.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The primary purpose of ancient bureaucracies was to advance the welfare of the citizenry
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. Ascribed characteristics were usually the basis of the division of labor in preindustrial societies
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The “­­putting-out” system was an early example of capitalism.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The invention of the clock stimulated a greater degree of interest in the effective use of time.
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The rise of Protestantism was a major cause of the retardation of European capitalism
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. Both Catholics and Protestants had similar rates of literacy in early modern Europe
  2. True
  3. False

 

  1. The phrase “time is money” contradicts Calvinist Protestant ideas.
  2. True
  3. False

 

Essay Questions

  1. In what ways does the Protestant Ethic manifest itself in today’s economy?
  2. Compare gathering and hunting economies with agricultural economies in regard to the amount of time spent working
  3. How has the measurement of time affected the way work is done”?
  4. In what ways did religious doctrine inform of the place of work in people’s lives?
  5. Why has warfare been more prominent in agricultural societies than in societies based on gathering and hunting?

6..        What were the advantages and disadvantages for workers as a result of the “putting out” system?

  1. What were the advantages of being literate in preindustrial Europe

 

 

Answers

 

  1. A
  2. A
  3. B
  4. B
  5. D
  6. B
  7. C
  8. B
  9. C
  10. B
  11. B
  12. A
  13. A
  14. A
  15. B
  16. A
  17. B
  18. B
  19. A
  20. A
  21. A
  22. B
  23. B
  24. A

 

 

Chapter 2—The Organization of Work in Preindustrial Times

Test Bank


Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is not a key source of an ascribed status?
    1. Age
    2. Race
    3. Sex
    4. Training
  2. Rural families in preindustrial times usually engaged in
    1. Treating illnesses that afflicted family members
    2. Crop cultivation
    3. Making clothing
    4. All of the above
  3. Nepotism is
    1. A bizarre sexual practice
    2. The use of family connections as a basis for hiring and promotion
    3. The enslavement of people of different ethnicities
    4. None of the above
  4. Serfdom
    1. Is  a condition of being legally bound to the land one lived and worked on
    2. Was prevalent in Russia through much of the 19th century
    3. Was common in France until the Revolution of 1789
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above
  5. Slavery in ancient Rome
    1. Was based solely on race
    2. Was an immutable condition
    3. Was used only for agricultural work
    4. All of the above
    5. None of the above
  6. Some slave owners chose to free their slaves because:
    1. They could no longer afford to keep them
    2. They wanted their slaves to have the chance to become citizens
    3. They lived in constant fear of slave rebellions
    4. None of the above
  7. It has been asserted that slavery __________ the __________ labor-saving technologies.
    1. Helped; Advancement of
    2. Decreased; Need for
    3. Had no influence on; the use of
    4. Inhibited; Development of
  8. Caste in India
    1. Is virtually identical with social class
    2. Is often tied to particular occupations
    3. Is the basis of endogamy
    4. B and C only
    5. All of the above
  9. Noneconomic features of a guild include:
    1. The social ties that result from guild membership
    2. The provision of support for members in difficulties
    3. The maintenance of high standards of craftsmanship
    4. New skills acquired from other guild members
    5. All of the above
  10. Which of the following statements is an example of the restrictions reinforced by guilds?
    1. Guild members could not exhibit their wares in their shop windows.
    2. Members of a guild were not allowed to participate in the festivals organized by members of different guilds.
    3. Guild members could only marry daughters of fellow guild members
    4. Working while using artificial sources of life was prohibited.
    5. All of the above
  11. Preparation for occupations such as ___________ occurred in medieval universities setting.
    1. Accounting
    2. Civil service
    3. Law
    4. All of the above
  12. In 1835, guilds were abolished by legislative action in __________.
    1. The United States
    2. England
    3. Ireland
    4. Italy
  13. Individuals occupying first stage of guild membership were
    1. Novitiates
    2. Journeymen
    3. Apprentices
    4. Servants

True / False Questions

  1. Race is a fixed status based solely on biological characteristics
  2. True
  3. False
  4. Family ties were particularly important in pre-modern economic relationships because they provided a basis for trust
    1. True
    2. False
  5. In pre-industrial workplaces, there was little distinction between “family” and “work unit”.
  6. True
  7. False
  1. By their very nature, family connections cannot be used to exploit members of a family.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Ethnicity is always based on the biological differences that separate different groups of people
  1. True
  2. False
  1. Slavery was a major source of labor in ancient Mesopotamia and Egyptian societies.
  1. True
  2. False
  1. Slavery in the New World was intimately connected to the development of plantation economies.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Another term used to describe the “untouchables” is Jati.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. One reason for the weakening of the caste system has been the expansion of educational opportunities in India.
    1. True
    2. False
  4. Guilds were the major form of work organization in medieval cities.
  1. True
  2. False
  1. Guilds had a strong religious component.
    1. True
    2. False

 

Essay Questions

  1. How was slavery in antiquity different from slavery in the New World?
  2. In what ways did traditional guild organization affect the development and spread of innovative technologies?
  1. Describe what is meant by an ascribed status.  How has this been used to determine the division of labor in traditional societies?
  2. How did family ties serve as a basis for the organization of work in pre-industrial societies?
  1. How did the organization and operation of guilds reflect the zero-sum economy that was typical of medieval Europe?
  2. Describe the process by which an apprentice became a journeyman.

 

Answer Key

  1. A
  2. D
  3. B
  4. D
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. D
  9. E
  10. D
  11. C
  12. B
  13. D
  14. C
  15. B
  16. A
  17. B
  18. B
  19. A
  20. A
  21. B
  22. A
  23. A
  24. A